Spain’s government functions in the form of a constitutional monarchy. This constitutional monarchy is based on a monarch who reaches his position hereditary and a bicameral parliament or National Assembly called Cortes Generales. Another component of Spain’s government is the executive branch, composed by a Council of Ministers and headed by the President of Government.
Another important component of Spain’s government is the legislative branch. This branch is composed by a Senate and a Congress of Deputies. The Senate, locally called Senado, has 159 positions, 51 of them chosen by regional legislatures and the remaining 208 chosen through popular vote. The Congress of Deputies, or Congreso de Diputados, has 350 members who are elected by popular vote.
From an administrative point of view, Spain is divided in 50 provinces. These 50 provinces conform 2 autonomous cities and 17 autonomous communities which are La Rioja, Madrid, Murcia, Navarre, Valencia, Galicia, Extremadura, Catalonia, Andalucia, Aragon, Principality of Asturias, Balearic Islands, Basque Country, Canary Islands, Castile and Leon, Cantabria, and Castile La Mancha.
Spain functions as a Federation of Autonomous Communities who counts of their own regional government and which despite of being united and under one same general government, function under some systems and laws of their own. This way, Spain combines the general government with several different Autonomous Communities with their own government, which might have powers of their own.
One of the main problems Spain faces in relation with politics is the terrorist group ETA. This terrorist group, from the Basque region, wishes to achieve the Basque independence through attacks to people who works for the government and often to others as well. Since May of 2005, the government decided to try to reach a peace agreement with this group if it gives up its weapons.
Also in 2005, Spain approved the European Union Constitution through a referendum, becoming the first country approving it through this method, and one of the first ones of approving it at all. This European Union Constitution must be approved by each country member in order of being declared valid, and Spain was among the first countries doing so.